Scentspy meet Viktoria



A massive great big THANK YOU goes out to the extremely talented Viktoria! your input was what made this interview so great- Huda aka. Scentspy


Mastermind in feminine perfumery, Viktoria Minya was always going to be someone I wanted to talk to.

Such hopes, are often the stuff of day dreams and well intentioned lists. However, one mini review, one long review, and a few Instagram likes and one long email resulted in the conversation you are about to read. I care quite little about perfume adverts, I don’t pay much attention to magazine reviews, but hearing the gospel truth from perfumers is what Scentspy is all about.

 My first contact with Viktoria Minya was at Parfumarija (Dublin). I’m afraid that to begin with I wasn’t too taken by Hedonist (Minya’s then very recent release). Fast forward a couple of hours when I couldn’t put down the card sample I never threw away. Fast forward to today, and I’ll happily say that there is little that compare’s in my estimation. In fact ever becoming acquainted with Minya’s full catalogue of works, I have come to think of Minya’s work as portraits- portraits of women’s characters, personalities. Embodiments of our most natural beings. It is as if her portraits pinpoint constellations of a woman’s essence, giving way to the various notes and accords to connect the dots. When worn I feel like one of those constellations treading the earth and becoming a ball of molten honey, wax and wood- that elusive Hedonist accord, or rather, Minya accord.

 In 2013 Viktoria Minya released her first debut perfume, Hedonist. Within a matter of months Hedonist took on a cult association- people were crazy about it and the demand for Minya’s follow up perfumes grew stronger. Over the past two years the Hedonist collection grew with Hedonist Rose, Hedonist Iris, Eau de Hongrie, and now, Hedonist Cassis. Graduating from the Grasse Institute of Perfumery, Minya is now based at her Paris studio.

Without further introduction, please meet Viktoria.



Scented memories…

I grew up in Hungary and I was always interested in all kinds of arts. I actually remember one time when I was six years old and we would be in our cottage. My father would pass in the lawn mower- he would pass by and I remember one specific moment when it would hit me- the fresh cut grass would hit my face, or my nose, and I would be so happy- so extremely content. I really think it was probably one of the most beautiful moments of my life. And I realised that is because of what I’m smelling, you know? The fresh cut grass and how it’s mixing with beautiful spring scents all over the place.

At that point I got to think, Ok I need to have that scent- I need to own it. I need to put it in a bottle and smell it another time, whenever I want, and share it with other people to make them happy. So I actually started to squeeze the juice out of the fresh cut grass and into a bottle. Of course it ended up rotten after a few hours- it was horrible and I was crying!


When did you realise you wanted to be a perfumer?

In my last year of university I ended up going to France for the Erasmus programme and, you know it’s extremely inspiring! I felt like whenever I finished school I could be whatever I wanted to be. So this is how it happened- I got my degree, I got my diploma, and I realised this is the time I have to find out what I really want to be… It really happened in the matter of one moment when I would be reading about perfumes- because of course obviously I would have a lot of perfume books. I remember one specific moment when I would read about perfumers. It would explain about how you have to differentiate between 10,000 scents- and I remember really strongly, like, Ok this is me! I don’t know how I didn’t have this idea before, because whenever I put it into words that I want to be a perfumer- this is what I want to do- I would have all the memories coming back to me. How I would smell perfumes as a teenager, how I would spend all my pocket money on perfume samples, how I would harass my friends- ‘OK we can go to the cinema, but first we have to go and smell stuff in perfume stores! So I don’t even know how it was not obvious to me before.

When I realised it was a very strong feeling […] I also realised I don’t have any money for that. I cannot ask for any more money from my parents because you know at that time I was already twenty-two and I have to start putting money aside- I have to make money for this education because it is really expensive. I was really motivated to get a job! I ended up working in a multi-national company at human resources for 3-4 years to be able to save money for starting school. During that time though, every lunch break I would spend it in the next door perfumery- it was the Guerlain perfumery and the biggest Sephora in all of France. I think I really educated myself a lot about the juice, the perfumes before entering school. It was really interesting because before entering school, they offered me the post of Human Resources Director. I was really really scared to refuse that! Everybody in my surrounding was telling me, ‘Come’on this is a big chance! You have to take it!’ So it was a really hard decision but I said no- and I went to the South of France to learn perfumery… this is how it all started!

I was in school, and I really loved every single moment of it. I then used to work for companies around Grasse- perfume creation companies. […] I moved back to Paris and now I have my studio here, in Paris.


When you went to Grasse, did you make a conscious decision about what kind of perfumer you wanted to be, or did your style develop over time?

I think so, yes. I mean, you get a general education about perfumery, and all the basses for you to be able to start creating fragrances. [And] then of course you are guided in the creation process. But at the same time, I think from the first time you start to do a perfume, when you create your own little doodles, you have your own signature- you have your own style. I think all of us- you know there were only 12 of us […] everyone had a very distinct style. It’s very interesting, so I think it’s very instantaneous […] I did have some trials you know, where I tried to do other stuff when I realised I had a specific style. Then I realised I could not do something completely totally different! […] I get that a lot- that I have a small signature in all the perfumes- no matter if I am doing for myself or if I’m doing it for other brands.

Viktoria Minya's perfume organ

Yeah because I mention it in one of my review, I called it a ‘Hedonist accord’, you can definitely smell your style. If I had ten perfumes in front of me I could tell which ones were yours- they have this beautiful waxy, honey, wood quality to them- I don’t know how to quite describe it!

Yeah to be honest, I don’t know either! But I do hear that a lot, and actually you know’what? It’s really pleasing! Its making me happy because some of the big perfumers have their own style and I can smell their style. I can smell a Jean-Claude Ellena, and know a Sophia Grojsman. So in that sense it is extremely pleasing for me. But its also very interesting because I cannot- I cannot name it. I cannot define it myself. I think you put it better than me, that it is woody-honeyish.


Is it something that you think of or something that just happens?

Not at all- it is definitely not conscious.


Obviously they are similar, but they [the perfumes] all move in different directions. Hedonist has a certain volume to it, it takes over a certain amount of space. Whereas Hedonist Rose is very gentle- it is my favourite rose perfume out there (because it doesn’t have a rough metallic edge to it- it is very resinous, very soft). And with Hedonist Iris- I find that one the most gentle of them all, because it is earthy, and so subtle.

Yeah, it’s really delicate. It’s based on Iris and cocoa, neither of which is a harsh scent you’know? Yeah they are delicate flowers; I always wanted to work around nice raw materials. Concerning rose,  I actually have a lot of feedback. People are appreciating it because there are a lot of rose absolute, and rose smelling perfumes- I love all those materials, and I love working with them, but it is so suffocating, it is so overpowering on me, that I really don’t like to wear a really strong rose perfumes. So I think it is a nice option for people who love to smell of rose, but they are also disturbed when it is a big fat voluptuous rose- because this is my case as well.


What was your original concept for Hedonist?

Oh my god! I spent a lot of time to find the right name. The idea […] it was really in connection with Grasse. I was in Grasse at that time, and I really realised how perfumery has changed over the years and not necessarily for the best. I was surrounded by all the amazing materials, we’d hear all these amazing stories of these masterpieces- and they’re disappearing! I realised how perfume used to be seriously a magical moment- it used to be a kind of ritual you know?  It used to be a huge exclusivity and a highlight to anybody’s day. Now, usually we’re using perfumes not to smell bad. Like I’m brushing my teeth, washing my face, and at the same time I put a perfume on myself to just not smell bad.

I found this really devaluing to perfume and I wanted to create something that would bring back the old days of perfumery, like those golden ages of where it was really an exclusivity and really a ritual. It was a highlight of your day! So came the idea of a juice that would remind people of the golden ages of perfumery using really nice raw materials, not really mattering about the price. To then have a packaging that you cannot ignore; like you cannot experience hedonist perfume on you between 8.00-8.01am! Because you have to look, you have to see- I am  putting this on myself, and you feel the exclusivity, the nobleness of perfume[…] but that was definitely the feeling guiding me through. This is what I want to achieve.


And the name Hedonist?

Oh it was really, really tough to choose a name. I spent a lot of time, had a lot of ideas; and then suddenly, really naturally, it came to me. I used to be called Hedonist when we were at perfumery school because friends were telling me that I was really enjoying life- in a very visible way! And then, I don’t know, it was natural. I couldn’t imagine anything else being the name.

By now the name has become associated with my perfume and I am very happy about it.


Regarding the Hedonist perfumes: Rose, Iris and now Hedonist Cassis. Did you want to create follow-ups to Hedonist, or did you notice similarities between the perfumes and decide to group them?

Umm.. I didn’t want to make a flanker of scents. In my mind, I had a different kind of woman to make a perfume for. This is why I think rose ended up a bit flirtatious, and Iris the most elegant- effortlessly, timelessly elegant. I had different women in front of me […] I wanted to make perfumes to offer to a different audiences. That actually ended up really interesting- Rose [Hedonist] for example is very very popular in Asia, and Iris [Hedonist] being very popular in the Middle East- that is actually quite surprising for me. But yeah, it was quite different for me.

I wanted to do something around rose, I had a very beautiful rose speciality that was a mix of absolutes, oil and rose water; and to do theme around that- or the iris was quite challenging.


hedonist iris

Which one came more naturally to you? rose or iris?

Hmm, well rose and iris are both legends in perfumery. It’s not that I can make it-I can’t decide! Its like asking which child you like the most. It was very obvious for me that it was going to be rose and iris, I knew about that before creating them. They are the most noble and luxurious raw materials ever existing in perfumery- the most expensive ones as well.

Iris was interesting in a way, like I started creating it and then I went in a completely different direction. But I couldn’t let no.24 go-  I kept going back to it many many times, after many turns, and after hundreds of trials I kept turning round. After while I decided this was it, I don’t think I would be more satisfied with more of them. But I don’t think, nor can I say that one [rose or iris] was coming more natural to me.


hedonist rose

Smallest vs greatest number of trials you’ve worked on?

Ooh that’s an interesting question… I think the smallest for me has been 150 trials- and not less than that. I think biggest was- I think about five, six, seven-hundred?


How do you feel about synthetic materials?

Well listen, there is no perfume without synthetic raw materials, and what is really interesting is that a lot of people don’t know that most of the fruits for example are not possible to be done without synthetic raw materials. Perfumers have been using synthetic materials for more than a hundred years now, and its really helping our job. Sometimes there is no sustainable way of using one natural raw material. Animalic notes- you know I’m not really comfortable with a small civet cat dying just because I want to add this and that effect to my materials. Also, I know that most of the full and pure, 100% natural, are not appealing to people. It’s also something in connection with the market. I know it’s a big taboo and we really need to talk about it. I don’t think it’s being very obviously said by the big brands- they are never communicating about synthetics. But I know people do not like fully raw natural materials. Most of the things on the market are mixed with synthetics and this is the case with my creations as well.


Do you think this has something to do with the fact that we are now brought up to smell perfume mostly through synthetics, and that something completely natural would be (alien?) alien to our senses?

Yes this is what I mean. I think we are more or less formatted in this way- we like musks, we like something that is extremely long lasting. We like […] very fruity notes, like cardamom notes. All of these things are used with synthetics. With something totally pure and a natural creation, people would feel that it is quite rough. Like for example rose. It is extremely difficult work with- I am used to comparing it to vomit, horse, you know? You have to break it in to work with it, otherwise it’s an extremely suffocating smell. Which you would enjoy for a minute on a smelling trip, but otherwise you would definitely not enjoy having it on you the whole day- it would actually make your head ache. My husband is of Lebanese origin, and he loves everything rose related. He was always telling me, ‘Why don’t you just use rose? Rose absolute? And you know all this fuss about doing a perfume, but everyone loves rose!’ So I made him try it. I made him put it on because he was talking too much about it. So I put a bit on him one day, some rose absolute, and he had a major headache that day. He just hated it, he really suffocated. So this is a natural raw material- it has a very strong effect on you no matter how beautiful or amazing it is to work with. Its really going to disturb you, especially really strong raw materials.


And what would you say was your favourite raw material, and your favourite synthetic material? Which one would they be?

I love mandarin! I really really love it, and any time I smell it, no matter if its 10 degrees or 30 degrees in the middle of summer or spring, it will always put me in the Christmas mood- like always! It is just so uplifting, it has a very strong effect on me. And I also love ginger- which is an acquired taste because I was not very very familiar with ginger. I love it too because it is a very revitalising material. Of course it is very difficult to use in perfumery- it is very difficult to dose and is quite limited regulation wise.

As for synthetic raw materials, I really like musks. There is one called galaxolide- it is very very popular because it is so soft and cocooning and a very comforting scent. I really like that one.

mandarin 2


And would you do one that was principally a mandarin note? Or a musk note?

Well there is a specific quantity that would match with other ingredients. Like mandarin for example is known to work well with jasmine. So whenever I am working for other people, and I can put maybe a bigger direction than in in my perfumes. There is actually a big amount of mandarin in hedonist, but ever since I have not used it in bigger doses, like I would use it only in smaller doses. Hedonist Cassis has mandarin as well.


Hedonist Cassis– could you tell me more about it?

It’s a really interesting creation in a perfume because this was not intended to be released to the market… I had a very beautiful experience with someone who came to me and asked for a bespoke service. She was not necessarily young, but all her spirit was extremely young- completely free and [carefree]. Often times we would start working together over the course of the year, and I think we became friends- I think it’s safe to say that; often times (she did not know this) it would come up a lot in our conversation […] that it was an elf perfume. She herself [was]elfish- you know like Lord of the Rings elfish character? So there was a perfume that we finished and she was extremely happy with. It was so nice- I said I would really like to share it with people, and she agreed to that. Of course I had to modify it, it’s not going to be the same perfume that she paid for as a service.[…] I did modifications so that it wouldn’t be entirely the same, but that it would have the same basis as herself. The perfume is around cassis (which is blackcurrent in English I think) and it would have purple crystals- like the fruit. I actually did a thank you note for her, saying that the perfume was inspired by Bernadett (that’s her name), and if you have anybody that inspires you in your life, give them card, [and] put their photo with this hashtag ‘#youinspiredmevm’ on Instagram, Facebook- whatever social media. Every three months in honour of these people in her life, we would draw between those photos and offer it [Hedonist Cassis] to the winner.

I really thought it was a nice way of honouring the friendship that we have, and also because it was herself inspiring the whole perfume. I really wanted to cheers that, I wanted to say thanks to her.

 hedonist cassis

That’s such a lovely concept. Where abouts did the blackberry note come from? Was it because of the woodlands-elfish quality that this lady personified, or did it come from somewhere else?

No not necessarily. It was amazing on her skin, and blackcurrant being of course one of my favourite materials. It’s quite green, but at the same time tart and sweet- I love this combination. It’s really mouth-watering in some way, so it was a natural occurrence and didn’t take much time actually.

 blackcurrant bush

Do you think the perfume take on that ethereal quality?

Definitely! Yes it’s definitely quite ethereal and up-lifting, and happy in a way like she was. I think we were able to capture that. I did put a small bit of fresh cut grass into the perfume to honour my own childhood and this really big happiness that I had, so it is really uplifting, and has ethereal qualities.


So I suppose it’s a combination of her and yourself together?

Yeah sure I don’t think I could change, I would always put myself in my perfume no matter what- having my specific style. And definitely it would have to match her […] it was about inspiration and having people in our lives that are inspiring us to do specific stuff, like art and making perfume.



What kind of feedback do you get from the general public?

Well it’s really interesting how Hedonist was becoming this cult fragrance- within a few months it was taking over and really creating a buzz. I would get emails, until now actually, people are praising it. I get emails from various people saying thank you, like they found finally the scent they are looking for their whole life.

I’m sometimes getting Hedonist, sometimes Hedonist Iris, Hedonist rose- it’s a lovely feedback. But Hedonist has a very specific property which I know everyone is communicating about how it is sexy, and how it is sensual and appealing for the opposite sex- but I get a lot of feedback how men are crazy about Hedonist. Whether it’s their woman, their wife who are wearing it. […] From the beginning actually […] when I would give it to my friends who would act as my focus group. They would all come back and say Ok it’s nice and everything, but Oh gosh! My husband is crazy about it! And that’s really weird for me! Because it’s not something I’m very conscious of- but it seems to be working well until up to date, and it’s quite surprising. Some people tell me it has saved their marriage.

 eau de hongrie

Eau de Hongrie!

That was one perfume that I find so special. When I first smelled it I found it so familiar- very like a jasmine oil I got from a friend years ago. At the same time, it was so different. There is a beautiful clove note, its very relaxing- very cathartic. I think because it has a woody base to it, its quite spiritual- very humbling. Please, tell me how you made this perfume!

I’m so happy you really like it! […] That perfume was a actually really interesting journey for me because I thought it would be mainly, you know mostly, appreciated by people from Hungary- because it talks to them a lot. But it ended up being quite popular all over the world –and that’s really nice- and in some places it is our best seller.


Well the inspiration it was not even an inspiration- it was just one sentence. When I got into perfumery school […] we had history classes, and then I got to know that the first alcoholic perfume- the first modern perfume- is called l’eau de la Reine de Hongrie. It was a beautiful story- the year of like 1300, there was an old lady- she was […] aging. Her name was Erzsébet (like Elizabeth in English) and she would come to an age whenever she would have problems with her joints and arthritis and stuff like that. In order to ease her pain, she would order a perfume basically, […] a miraculous water. […]

We don’t know if it was her that was doing it (preparing it) or if it was somebody in a pharmacist that was creating it for her. Anyways, she ended up using miraculous water that we know is based upon rosemary. According to the legend, it was making her so much younger and so much prettier that she ended up being Hungary’s Queen. And so it was a very touching story, and this fragrance l’eau de la Reine de Hongrie ended up being popular all over Europe. We know that it contained rosemary, lavender, it was quite an aromatic tincture actually.

[…] I was so happy! When it was perfume history classes I was among people from all over the world. There was one person from Guadalupe, Mexico, and France, New York and Spain. It was amazing […] And then we hear that Hungary has to do with this creation, the first modern perfume! I was so happy, I was so proud that immediately I thought I had to recreate this scent. And then a few years after I started to think how- I was thinking should it be like an aromatic mixture? How can I put it into a modern context?

Then I don’t know, it was another inspiration that came that it should be around wine. We have Tokaji wine from Tokaji aszu, which is basically […] a concentrated aroma. You should taste it- its lovely.

So yeah Tokaji is popular all over the world and is very tasty, it also has medical properties as well- so I thought- this is my rosemary of modern times! It can make people uplifted with energy as well. This is why I used the bottle shape of the tokaji as well, it was a sort of ode to the tokaji wine and region.



There are similarities between Hedonist and Eau de Hongrie as they are both very sweet. Obviously there is sweetness with the Tokaji wine, but was it a conscious decision to make another sweet perfume?

Umm no not really. And I hear sometimes people are saying, Oh it is the same as Hedonist for some people it is very very similar. They are extremely different in structure, they couldn’t be closer at all- they couldn’t be further at all! So, I really don’t find them very similar, but again maybe I am not objective according to my creations. But they really do have different bases in all cases. It’s just tokaji wine you know? I could not make something that doesn’t have this liquory effect; and it’s not giving you back how the grapes are filled with sunshine, hence honey. You’ know? It’s very interesting to get that feedback because sometimes I wonder…


Well for me, I can definitely smell very similar aesthetics- they are both sweet perfumes, they are both have an alcohol note. However, I think personally they are very different. Eau de Hongrie is a very relaxing perfume. I think it’s because it has a spice to it- it does have a clove note and I think that note separates them.

Usually people don’t realise the clove note, so it’s very interesting that you define that, that you remark that. Some people don’t even realise there is a clove note. So yes, there is a quite distinct clove note.


Your perfumes are very feminine, and as we have covered, men loved hedonist. However, when you create perfumes are they principally for women? Would you try your hand at something more masculine?

Well, I have had a lot of feedback recently from men. Ok, so Hedonist used to be quite popular among men as well, they used to write to me and say ‘Oh please change the packaging, I cannot buy a perfume like that! But I love the scent and I really enjoy it!’. So I knew about that. Now it turns out that one of my best friends is a vivid lover of Hedonist Rose, and it smells amazing on his skin! Literally, amazing! Like I don’t think rose being an extremely sexy scent, and I don’t think about it as a being a very sensual creation. I think it’s flirtatious, I think it’s quite playful, and it’s a delicate nice rose, you’know? It’s quite young spirited […] But I never thought of it as a very sensual, voluptuous creation- and on his skin its turning into something, I don’t know, so amazing, so sensual, and so erotic! It’s very very surprising to me. He loves that obviously! And actually it became his best fragrance. He’s using it on a daily basis and he’s adoring it.
[And] I have just recently had a very nice encounter with one celebrity (who I am not supposed to name probably), who is using Hedonist Iris- and it’s a man. It somebody that I’ve known since [I’ve been] a teenager, and I never thought that I would have anything to do with him, let alone making a perfume that he adores. He was telling me, from an email he wrote me (I was crying over it)- he was telling me that he was using it, and that people, friends are stopping him and asking ‘What is this? This is amazing!’ He says that it stays on forever (even though I’ve had some people tell me that it’s not very long lasting on their skin).
So it’s really surprising to me how there is a big demand from men- that they really really appreciate the fragrances. It’s really interesting to me!


Would you change the packaging for them?

[Haha] No! To be able to use a Viktoria Minya perfume they have to go through the hassle of buying the crystal bottles. [But no no] honestly, I’m not planning on changing the packaging per se. There is another company now I am working for- a very masculine scent- so I would tell [them] when that’s available and when it’s going to be ready- so they don’t go through the hassle of buying a bottle full of crystals. [But] if that is too much for them they can always say it is for their wife.


I read that the crystals were inspired by a jewellery company you were working for, and I also read that they were inspired by chandeliers at an opera house. Where exactly did the inspiration come from?

Well it really came from the jewel company in the US- it as that time that we started thinking of putting crystals in the bottles. That was definitely the main thing. [But] I’ll tell you that just recently I never thought of this link but it is so obvious- I adore the Eiffel Tower. Like I love how it has the playing light show put [on] all the time. You know it- it’s put on every hour- flashing- I loved that theme! It’s been more than ten years of me living in France and I’m loving it. Whenever I am crossing to, whatever I am doing, I would always stop and look at it because it’s so amazing, so breath-taking. [And] I was thinking that Hedonist is maybe from that? Maybe it’s the golden, orangey background, with white scintillation, and flashing- maybe it’s coming from that. Like I really like the idea- it just shocked me how the idea could be similar to the abstract eye you’know? How they are actually quite similar.

eiffel tower


Ok, so here are my final questions…

What do you want to achieve with Viktoria Minya Parfums over time?

Listen, I recently have been invited to China […] and I was extremely shocked that they would pick me from all the perfume houses. Like it sounds maybe humbling, but really I was very surprised that they would pick me form all the perfume houses that exist in Paris, and from all over the world. [And] that that I was able to go with names like Bertrand Duchaufour- and Luca Turin was there. It was an amazing company, and it’s amazing also to open up a business, to be pioneer in China! Niche perfume is just starting there actually, so… If you would ask me ten years ago if I would have any dreams like that, or that this would be coming true! […]

It’s really interesting and it made me realise that I don’t know what I want to achieve, but I’m also not even capable of thinking of things at this point. If things stay this way and I have wonderful experiences with brands, experiences to do bespoke perfumes with people who become my friends; that I am able to extend my line and do work together with people I really enjoy… That would be fine with me. I really don’t have plans for the future. I am really quite satisfied with how things are now… [..] I’m really happy!

Where do you think the perfume industry will go in thirty years?

Oh God! Regulations are really difficult to follow up. I’m sure you know IFRA? Well they’re changing every two years and that’s really really disturbing. Like I wouldn’t mind if they changed directions every few years, but every two years is really too much. [And] I also feel that it’s not fair- like [unless] the cigarette lobby are able to get away with what is actually very harmful for a lot of people, and we have to suffer because it is not possible to put delicate information […] I think it would be really important to give a lot more information than what we are giving right now. I would definitely change that as well. [And] then it would not be necessary to limit, as the customer can decide if they want to wear this or not. Yes that’s one thing for sure.

In the next thirty years, where do you see the perfume industry going?

Well I’ve been thinking about it- you know I’ve been to Milan just at the beginning of the year, and there [were] huge brands. [And] I’ve been to China- and of course at the perfume exhibition there was billions of new brands. Its always interesting for me to see when- I don’t want to sound mean or anything like that- but I think there was a big change when not only perfumers would create their own brands but, just people for investment reasons, you’know? I think that was a big change in perfumery.

I don’t know where the industry is going, honestly I don’t have a very specific idea- I am also just observing. I am sure that the fact that big multinational companies are buying up some of the bigger niche brands is probably going to have an effect on it. I was just in Sephora two days ago, and I would see how all Givenchy, Armani and Yves Saint Laurent and everybody had their own exclusive line- that’s obviously competition for niche perfume brands. So… That’s going to be really interesting in the next few years- what’s about to happen? Definitely the market is going to be saturated, it’s the same question- what’s going to happen in niche perfumery and how the customers are going to react to that. I think niche perfumery from the beginning was born from that- there was such an overwhelming supply of perfumes.